What is Welding and types of welding processes?


Modern metal Fabrication process is not possible without the contribution of the Process named WELDING. So, We can say that welding plays very important role in today's industry.

Welding Process is not a newly found process of fabrication/joining, it is in existence since very long time. There is an evidence that Egyptian people knew how to weld two parts together. We have found some Gold boxes which have Lap weld joints. So, we can say welding is in existence from very long time ago. The only thing is that welding has improved from time to time till modern methods of welding.




Invention of Welding- We cannot appreciate or credit one person for the invention of Welding. 
In early 1800s, Sir Humphry Davy produced electric arc between two carbon electrodes through the use of a battery. 
In 1836, Edmund Davy of England discovered acetylene. Then Auguste De Meritens, while working in his laboratory in France, welded Lead Plates together with the heat of an arc for storage batteries. A Russian named Nikolai N. Benardos who was also working in French laboratory was granted a Patent for welding. 
In 1890, C.L. Coffin of Detroit was credited with first U.S. patent for an arc welding process using a metal electrode.



Welding- It is a material joining process in which two similar or dissimilar metals usually joined together by melting them at suitable high temperature and then allows them to cool to make a joint. Weld can be made with or without the application of Pressure and with or without the use of filler material.

Some of the metals or alloys are easier to weld than others. To compare this ease, term '' Weldability'' is used. Weldability is the property of material which means the ease with which the metals or alloys can be welded with. This property of material depends upon lots of factors i.e. Gas evolution, change in hardness, metallurgical changes during welding etc.
1.It is used to make Permanent joints, also affects the metallurgy of components.
2. It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, structural works, aircrafts, railway wagons, cylinders and also for the purpose of general repairing etc.



Types of Welding-
Broadly welding can be divided into given below groups-

Pressure Welding/Solid State Welding-

  1. Resistance Welding
  • Spot Welding
  • Projection Welding
  • Butt Welding
  • Flash Welding
  • Seam Welding
  2. Friction Welding
  3. Ultrasonic Welding
  4. Explosion Welding
  5. Induction Welding
  6. Cold Pressure Welding
  7. Diffusion Welding
  8. Magnetic Pulse Welding


Fusion Welding/Liquid State Welding-

  1. Gas Welding

  • Pressure Gas Welding 
  • Air-acetylene Welding
  • Oxy-hydrogen Welding
  • Oxy-acetylene Welding

  2. Arc Welding

  • Submerged Arc Welding
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG) 
  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) 
  • Carbon Arc Welding
  • Plasma Arc Welding
  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding
  • Stud Arc Welding



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